پایان نامه مجمع عمومی، کنفرانس، Law

نوامبر 16, 2019 By vZbR33JZrQ

[۹۵]-مجمع عمومی سازمان ملل پرداختن به این موضوع را در کنفرانس خلع سلاح (CD)در خواست نموده است .ر.ک.به:
UNGA Res .36/97C,9 December 1981,and UNGA Res. 36/99 ,9 December 1981.


[96]- UNGA Res. 43/70, 7 December 1988, operative paragraph 1. The resolution was adopted with 154 States in favour , 1 againts (US).
[97]-Outer Space Treaty (OST).
[98]-ماه همیشه به عنوان یک جرم آسمانی در قالب کاری سازمان ملل در نظر گرفته شده است.در مصوبات و توافق نامه های پس از مصوبه ۱۸۸۴(XVIII)17 اکتبر ۱۹۶۳،مجمع عمومی سازمان ملل ارجاع روشن و واضحی به ماه و سایر اجرام آسمانی در مقایسه با بند ۲ ماده ۴ معاهده فضا دارد. در مورد بند ۱ ماده ۴ معاهده فضا این انحصار باید به طرح های ضعیف تر نسبت داده شود.ر.ک.به:
See C.Q. Christol, The Modern International Law of Outer Space (New York, pergamon Press, 1982). P. 22.
[99]-واژه ” فضای تهی خارج از جو” توسط cheng معرفی گردید.ر.ک.به:
see B. Cheng, ‘Introducing a New Term to Space Law: ‘Outer Void Space”, Vol. 11 korean Journal of Air and Space Law 1999, pp. 321-327. Outer space in the sense of Article IV(1) of OST is, thus, outer space sensu  lato.
[100]- L. Condorelli & Z. Meriboute, ‘Some Remarks on the State on International Law Concerning Military Activities in Outer Space’, Vol. 6 Italian Y.I.L. 1985, pp. 20-25.
[101]- S. Gorove, ‘Arms Control Provisions in the Outer Space Treaty: A Scrutinizing  Reapprasial ‘, Vol. 3 Georgia Journal of International and Comparative Law 1973, p. 117.
[102]- UNGA Res. 1(1), 24 January 1964, Operative paragraph 5(c) (emphasis added). See also the statement made by US Ambassador Goldberg expressly limiting the categories of WMD, quoted in R.L. Bridge, ‘International Law and Military Activities in Outer Space’, Vol. 13 Akron Law Review 1979, p. 656.
[103]-WMD
[104]- Resolution of the UN Commission for Conventional Armaments, 12 August 1948, http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/Avalon/decade/decad253.htm (last accessed at 25 February 2011; emphasis added). See also UNGA Res. 34/87A, 11 December 1979, where this definition is recalled in an arms control context, only 6 days after the adoption of UNGA Res, 34/68, 5 December 1979, which formed the basis of the Moon Agreement. Note that this definition does not define ‘mass’. Regrettably, the recent WMD Commission, consisting of renowned experts, did not attempt to define WMD either,see weapons of Mass Destruction Commission, ‘Weapons of Terror- Freeing the World from Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Arms’, 2006, http://www.wmdocmmission.org (last accessed on 24 February 2011).
[105]- S. Gorove, ‘International Space Law in Perspective- Some Major Issues, Trends and Alternaties’, Vol. 181 Receuil de Cours A.D.I. 1983-III, p. 378.
[106] -Weapen of Mass Destruction.
[107]- S. Gorove, p. 115 and R.J Zedalis and C.L. Wade, ‘Anti-Satellite Weapons and the Outer Space Treaty of 1967’, vol.8 California Western I.L.J. 1978, pp. 465-467.
[108]- Cf. Article 5 of the 1967 Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Treaty of Tlatelolco), 634 U.N.T.S. 326, entered into force on 22 April 1968. These characteristics do not only include the destructive impact, but also the indiscriminate nature and long- lasting effects. See Weapons of Mass Destruction, pp. 17, 32 and 42.
[109]-گر چه بند ۲ ماده ی ۴ معاهده ی فضا تنها به اجرام آسمانی اشاره دارد، باید  به این موضوع توجه داشت که ماه نیز جرم آسمانی می باشد، از این رو نمی تواند ادعا کرد که ماه مشمول مقررات این ماده نمی شود. ر.ک.به:  

. Contra, see R.J. Zedalis and C.L. Wade, p. 461.